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Botanical Name: Coffea arabica L.
Plant Part: Seeds
Processing Method: Cold Pressed
Description / Color / Consistency: A thick, dark brown liquid.
Aromatic Summary / Note / Strength of Aroma: A middle note of medium aroma, Coffee Oil smells just like a fresh brewed pot of coffee.
Blends With: Allspice, Cardamom, Cinnamon, Nutmeg, and Vanilla.
Product Abstract: Coffea Arabica is the earliest cultivated species of the coffee tree and still the most widely grown. All fine specialty coffees come from Coffea Arabica, which produce approximately 70% of the world's coffee, and are dramatically superior in quality to the other principal commercial coffee species. All the coffee now grown in the Americas originated from one tree in a Dutch botanical garden. Among other possibilities, it is thought that the name 'coffee' comes from Caffa, an Abyssinian province. It can be burned like incense as a room deodorizer, and is known to be loaded with flavonoids and antioxidants. Because this oil has a slightly thick consistency, we would recommend placing the bottle in a very hot water bath, changing the water frequently, and once it is back to the liquid state, be sure to shake it gently before use.
Cautions: Dilute before use; for external use only. May cause skin irritation in some individuals; a skin test is recommended prior to use. Contact with eyes should be avoided.
Storage: It is recommended that oils packaged in metal containers (for safe shipping) be transferred into dark glass containers to maintain freshness and attain maximum shelf life.
The aroma of roasted coffee
bean can reduce stress and promote relaxation
Effects of coffee bean aroma on the rat brain stressed by sleep
deprivation: a selected transcript- and 2D gel-based proteome
analysisHan-Seok Seo 1 , Misato Hirano, Junko Shibato, Randeep
Rakwal, In Kyeong Hwang, Yoshinori MasuoAffiliations
The aim of this study was 2-fold: (i) to demonstrate influences of roasted coffee bean aroma on rat brain functions by using the transcriptomics and proteomics approaches and (ii) to evaluate the impact of roasted coffee bean aroma on stress induced by sleep deprivation. The aroma of the roasted coffee beans was administered to four groups of adult male Wistar rats: 1, control group; 2, 24 h sleep deprivation-induced stress group (the stress group); 3, coffee aroma-exposed group without stress (the coffee group); and 4, the stress with coffee aroma group (the stress with coffee group). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of some known genes responsive to aroma or stress was performed using total RNA from these four groups. A total of 17 selected genes of the coffee were differently expressed over the control. Additionally, the expression levels of 13 genes were different between the stress group and the stress with coffee group: Up-regulation was found for 11 genes, and down-regulation was seen for two genes in the stress with coffee group. We also looked to changes in protein profiles in these four samples using two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis; 25 differently expressed gel spots were detected on 2D gels stained by silver nitrate. Out of these, a total of nine proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Identified proteins belonged to five functional categories: antioxidant; protein fate; cell rescue, defense, and virulence; cellular communication/signal transduction mechanism; and energy metabolism. Among the differentially expressed genes and proteins between the stress and the stress with coffee group, NGFR, trkC, GIR, thiol-specific antioxidant protein, and heat shock 70 kDa protein 5 are known to have antioxidant or antistress functions. In conclusion, the roasted coffee bean aroma changes the mRNA and protein expression levels of the rat brain, providing for the first time clues to the potential antioxidant or stress relaxation activities of the coffee bean aroma.
The NPR Interview
June 20, 200810:00 AM ET
Waking up to Smell the
IRA FLATOW, host:
This is Talk of the Nation: Science Friday. I'm Ira Flatow. A little bit later in the hour, we'll talk about several steps you can take to save energy. But first, some hopeful news for those of us who stumble into the kitchen groping for that first cup of coffee, bleary-eyed, stressed-out from a bad night's sleep. New research suggests that just a whiff of roasted coffee can alleviate some of the stress caused by missing sleep, at least, for rats.
A team of researchers found that in laboratory studies, just the scent of roasted coffee beans altered the activity of over a dozen genes in the brains of rodents who were deprived of sleep. At first, when the researchers deprived the rats of sleep, the activity of several important stress-relieving genes decreased, but the activity of those genes rose again to above-average levels when the sleepless rats smelled the roasted coffee. So, should we start smelling our morning coffee instead of drinking it? Do we know enough about people to say so?
Joining me now to talk about the stress-relieving aroma of coffee, research out in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, he's my guest, Yoshinori Masuo. He is a neuroscientist and head of the mental stress team at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology in Tsukuba, Japan. That's northeast of Tokyo. He's joining us on the phone, in the middle of the morning, late at night from Japan. Welcome to the program, Dr. Masuo.
Dr. YOSHINORI MASUO (Neuroscientist, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan): Hello, good afternoon.
FLATOW: Thank you. Did the rats in your experiment smell the coffee before the experiment started?
Dr. MASUO: I'm sorry, I can't hear you.
FLATOW: Let me ask it again.
Dr. MASUO: Yes?
FLATOW: Do the rats like the coffee smell?
Dr. MASUO: Yes, the first author in our paper, Dr. Seo told me that the rats prefer a certain kind of coffee, Colombian. We don't...
FLATOW: Oh, they...
Dr. MASUO: Yes?
FLATOW: They like Colombian coffee.
Dr. MASUO: Yes, but we don't know the difference among Colombian and others scientifically. But I met some specialists of coffee and they said, at a level of aroma, we prefer Colombian.
FLATOW: Why did you do this experiment with aroma rather than tasting the coffee?
Dr. MASUO: There are many previous papers showing the effects of coffee drinking. So, the effects of caffeine, but the effects of caffeine is not so clear yet, and we know that the aroma can attenuate at stress levels. So, we decided to measure molecular levels and molecular changes in the brain.
FLATOW: And so, you found that there was - that the aroma of the coffee reduced stress?
Dr. MASUO: Yes.
FLATOW: Do we - do - would - do we - would we think that in people, this might work the same way? Is it possible to test this out in people?
Dr. MASUO: Yes, it's possible, of course.
FLATOW: Mm-hm. Would you be doing that? Or do you leave that to someone else?
Dr. MASUO: Actually, I don't care because the...
(Soundbite of laughter)
Dr. MASUO: Because the - our goal is to establish the stress-measurement system in human blood. So, we just tested the effects of coffee aroma on the stress.
FLATOW: Would you then think that when we drink a cup of coffee, perhaps some of the satisfaction we get from drinking the coffee comes from smelling the coffee, too, perhaps?
Dr. MASUO. Yes, sure. Because that - when you drink a coffee, you cannot avoid the smell - smelling a coffee. And we just examined the effects of coffee aroma and we observed the automations(ph) in gene expression, in protein expression.
FLATOW: Mm-hm. What kinds of effects - you say gene expression and protein expression, what effects do they have on the brain?
Dr. MASUO: For example, we observed observations in several factors, but I'd like to talk about two typical examples. One is nerve-growth factor. This factor pro - promotes resistance to stress and enhances cell survival. So, it protects and rescues the brain from injury. Another one is glucocorticoid. This is involved in anxiety and endocrine controls, stress degrees, gene expressione of receptors for these two factors and coffee aroma made them recover. These changes may be associated with anti-stress effects of coffee aroma.
FLATOW: So, if you're staying - trying to stay up all night to study, should you drink the cup of coffee or smell it?
Dr. MASUO: Oh, that's an excellent question. Drinking coffee includes aroma, taste, caffeine and many factors. Among these, we just studied the aroma. And we don't mean that the smelling is better than drinking. In some online journals, they misinterpreted our work, saying stop drinking and smell coffee. But of course, you can enjoy drinking because you can smell the coffee at the same time, and the smell will rescue your brain.
FLATOW: You know, here in America, we don't think about the Japanese as coffee drinkers. We think of you as tea drinkers.
Dr. MASUO: Oh. That's actually - we drink a lot of coffee. In view of the amount of coffee, the first imported country is the United States, of course, and the second is Germany, and Japan is the third. We also need coffee to be awake.
(Soundbite of laughter)
FLATOW: Well, what about tea? Do you suspect there might be some aroma of tea that might have a similar effect?
Dr. MASUO: I think tea has similar effects, although we don't study it yet. Aroma can help the stressed brain. From the tea? I think so. There are some publications on aroma, for example, the aroma of lemon, the rose, and lavender. Physiological studies suggest that such good smells make animals feel relaxed. So, it may be possible to show evidence of molecular changes in the brain. Now, we have many things to do.
FLATOW: So, you can - you might be able to find aromas of other things that make us relax, like aroma therapy.
Dr. MASUO: Yes, sure.
FLATOW: So, smelling coffee is like aroma therapy then.
Dr. MASUO: Yes, I think so.
FLATOW: Yeah, that's terrific. Well, thank you very much for - I know it's in the middle of the morning, late at night for you. Dr. Masuo, thank you very, very much for staying up to talk with us.
Dr. MASUO: OK, you are welcome.
FLATOW: You're very welcome yourself. Dr. Yoshinori Masuo is a neuroscientist and head of the mental stress team at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology in Tsukuba, Japan.
NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by Verb8tm, Inc., an NPR contractor, and produced using a proprietary transcription process developed with NPR. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Accuracy and availability may vary. The authoritative record of NPR’s programming is the audio record.